The 20th century, perhaps the most violent century in recorded history, is taught as beginning with the big bang caused by World War I in 1914. In fact, the century had violent beginnings even before that. The European powers, practically all of them, had established a strong grip over Africa in the years before the turn of the century, and sometimes long before. Germany was no exception. She held several colonies in Africa, including South-West Africa, or present day Namibia. The area was populated by many different peoples, among them the Herero and Nama, the pastoralist tribes that make a living from livestock. After years of exploitation, servitude, rape and other abhorrent treatment and conditions, the Herero and Nama peoples rebelled against their German masters. Presaging Hitler, General Lothar von Trotha, who became governor of the German colony of South-West Africa and commander of its troops, issued a proclamation stating his intention to exterminate the Herero without mincing his words. Trotha and his troops massacred the Herero. Those they could not kill, they drove into the Namib Desert into a sure death from starvation and dehydration. The rest were put into concentration camps. A total of 100,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama perished.